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Citation Guides

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Chicago Citations

The Chicago (CMOS or CMS) Citation Style is used in many disciplines. It is split into two sub-style systems: the Notes-Bibliography system and the Author-Date system

The Notes-Bibliography (NB) system is primarily preferred by the art, literature, and history fields. Sources are cited using numbered footnotes or endnotes, each of which corresponds to a raised (also called superscript) number in the body/text of the paper. At the end of the paper is a bibliography with the full citations for all sources referenced in the paper. 

The Author-Date system is preferred by those in the natural, physical, and social sciences. Using parenthetical citations, sources are cited briefly in the body text of the paper by the author's last name and the year the source was published. At the end of the paper is a reference list that contains the full citations for all sources used within the paper. 

Both systems cover similar information, but differ in terms of the way readers are directed to sources and in how the sources are formatted. If you are unsure which system to use, contact your instructor. 

Notes on Chicago/Turabian Style:

Turabian refers to Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations which alters Chicago-style citations slightly so that the citations are more relevant to student papers. Some colleges include Turabian alterations in their Chicago citation guides; however, this guide currently does not include specific information on Turabian versions of Chicago-style citations. 

17th Edition Quick Guides

Below are links to The Chicago Manual of Style Online's citation quick guides. 


                            NoodleTools is a citation manager, which helps you format and organize your citations. It is available free of charge to students currently enrolled in at least one Butler course.