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MLA Citation Guide

General Information about Online Sources

Like all other sources, online items follow the standard MLA citation.

Remove http:// or https:// from URLs. Www is included, though, if it appears in your browser’s navigation bar. The MLA Handbook recommends against using third-party URL shorteners, such as Bit.ly or TinyURL, to shorten the links you provide in your Works Cited list (110).

The access date (the day you visited a website and got information from it) is not a required element in your citation. However, the MLA Style Center suggests including it when no date of publication is available, or “if you suspect the work may be altered or removed” (“Access Date” par. 2). The access date is listed in Day Month Year format at the end of the citation. For example: Accessed 10 Sept. 2016. See the Works Cited List section of this guide for month abbreviations

Try to find a publication date (frequently listed near the title of the article/website section or at the end of the text). If you’re citing an entire website and it gives a range of copyright or publication dates (example: Copyright © 2007 - 2018 Ask A Manager), the MLA Style Center recommends listing the entire date range (“Range of Dates” pars. 1-2). If you are citing an article, provide the publication date in Day Month Year format. If no publication date is available, simply leave out this element. Do not use “n.d.” (no date) as a placeholder.

Works Cited

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

“When Should I Include an Access Date for an Online Work?” The MLA Style Center, 29 Dec. 2016, style.mla.org/access-dates/. Accessed 31 July 2018.

“When Should You Give a Range of Dates for a Web Site?” The MLA Style Center, 5 July 2018, style.mla.org/web-site-date-ranges/. Accessed 30 July 2018.

Citation Examples

Entire Website

Author Last Name, First Name if available. Title of Website. Company or organization responsible for website, Publication date if available, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Bowers, Jeremy, et al., editors. The Best Commencement Speeches, Ever. National Public Radio, 2 July 2015, apps.npr.org/commencement/. Accessed 27 July 2018.

Occupational Outlook Handbook. United States, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/ooh/. Accessed 22 June 2016.

Section of a Website

Author Last Name, First Name if available. “Title of Section.” Title of Website [if available], Publisher or sponsor of website [if available], Day Month Year of publication [if available], URL of section. Accessed Day Month Year.

​“Farmer Services.” Cargill, Inc., cargill.com/products/farmer/index.jsp. Accessed 7 Oct. 2016.

"Group of 7 Countries (G7): Statistical Profile." NationMaster, www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Group-of-7-countries-(G7). Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.

Online Article from a Newspaper, Magazine, or Blog

Author Last Name, First Name, if available. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine/Newspaper/Blog, Day Month Year of Publication, URL of article. Accessed Day Month Year.

DeRuy, Emily. “The Complex Lives of Babies.” The Atlantic, 20 June 2016, www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/06/the-complex-lives-of-babies/487679/. Accessed 6 Oct. 2016.

Green, Alison. "How Can I Write a Resume When My Jobs Don’t Have Measurable Results?" Ask a Manager, 6 Nov. 2017, www.askamanager.org/2017/11/how-can-i-write-a-resume-when-my-jobs-dont-have-measurable-results.html. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.

Online Advertisement

Advertisement Title or Description. Title of Website, Day Month Year of publication, URL. Pop-up ad [leave out if ad is not a pop-up]. Accessed Day Month Year.

Advertisement for American Express. Bloomberg, 31 July 2018, www.bloomberg.com. Accessed 31 July 2018.

Advertisement for Toyota Prius. Earther, 2 Aug. 2018, earther.gizmodo.com/meet-the-communities-fighting-to-bring-back-their-stars-1827933239. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.

Wikipedia Entry

NOTE: Wikipedia is great for background research, but it’s usually not a source you should use to support an academic speech or paper.

To see when a Wikipedia article was updated, click the “View History” tab at the top of the page.

“Title of Entry.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Day Month Year entry was last updated, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

“Television.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 10 June 2016, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television. Accessed 22 June 2016.

"Coeloplana astericola." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 3 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coeloplana_astericola. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.

Federal Bill or Act of Congress from a Website

United States, Congress, House [or] Senate [if chamber is indicated]. Title of Bill or Statute. Title of Publication if available, vol. x, Day Month Year of publication, pp. x-x. Title of Website, URL. Xth Congress, Xth session, Resolution Number if available, passed Day Month Year [if passed].

United States, Congress, Senate. International Disability and Victims of Landmines, Civil Strife and Warfare Assistance Act of 2002. Congress.gov, www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/senate-bill/1777/text/. 107th Congress, 2nd session, Senate Resolution 1777, passed 13 Sept. 2002.

United States, Congress, House. Interior, Environment, Financial Services and General Government, Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Transportation, Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2019. Congress.gov, www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/6147. 115th Congress, 2nd session, House Resolution 6147, passed 1 Aug. 2018.

US Supreme Court Ruling from a Website

United States Supreme Court. Plaintiff v. Defendant. Day Month Year of decision. Title of Book if available, vol. x, pp. x-x. Title of Website, URL.

United States, Supreme Court. Sebelius v. Auburn Regional Medical Center. 22 Jan. 2013. United States Reports, vol. 568, pp. 145-164. Supreme Court of the United States, www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/boundvolumes/568BV.pdf.

United States, Supreme Court. Dred Scott v. Sanford. 1857. NOLO: Law for All, supreme.nolo.com/us/60/393/case.html. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.

Image from a Website

Artist or photographer Last Name, First Name. Title of Artwork. Date work was created if available. Title of Website, Date work was posted if available, URL.

Aldegrever, Heinrich, printmaker. Intemperance. 1528. The New York Public Library Digital Collections, digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/d6a157b0-2efe-0133-e7f7-58d385a7b928.

van Gogh, Vincent. Starry Night. 1889. Wikimedia Commons, 22 Aug. 2008, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VanGogh-starry_night_ballance1.jpg.

Podcast or Radio Show Episode

Last Name, First Name, host/reporter/narrator [if available]. “Title of Episode.” Title of Show, Hosted/Written/Produced/Other creative role by First Name Last Name, season x if available, episode x if available, Media Company if available, Day Month Year of release, URL. 

Peralta, Eyder, reporter. "Zimbabwe Presidential Election Results Underway." All Things Considered, hosted by Ailsa Chang, National Public Radio, 2 Aug. 2018, www.npr.org/2018/08/02/635047726/zimbabwe-incumbent-emmerson-mnangagwa-leads-in-presidential-election.

Vogt, PJ, and Alex Goldman, hosts. "Raising the Bar." Reply All, episode 52, 20 Jan. 2016, gimletmedia.com/episode/52-raising-the-bar/.

​Video Uploaded to a Hosting Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.)

Creator Last Name, First Name if available, creator role. “Title of Short Video” [or] Title of Long Video/Feature Film. Title of Website, uploaded by Username of person who uploaded video, Day Month Year video was posted, URL.

Aranda, Michael, host. “Sprites, Jets, and Glowing Balls: The Science of Lightning.” YouTube, uploaded by SciShow, 23 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzNk4w2k2h0.

Sangra, Danny, director. "War." Vimeo, uploaded by Danny Sangra, 31 July 2018, vimeo.com/channels/staffpicks/282577747.

Video from Netflix, Hulu, or a Similar Service

The example below uses an entire TV show. To cite a TV episode or a movie, use the appropriate physical video citation without the physical media format and with the app or website information added.

TV show viewed on Netflix, Hulu, etc., WEBSITE:

Show Name. Created by First Name Last Name, Production Company, date(s) of original airing. Website Name, URL.

The Handmaid’s Tale. Created by Bruce Miller, MGM Television, 2017-18. Hulu, www.hulu.com/the-handmaids-tale.

Planet Earth II. Narrated by David Attenborough, BBC, 2016. Netflix, www.netflix.com/title/80195377.

TV show viewed on Netflix, Hulu, etc., APP:

MLA treats video subscription apps as versions, not containers.

Show Name. Created by First Name Last Name, Service Name app, Production Company, date(s) of original airing.

The Handmaid’s Tale. Created by Bruce Miller, Hulu app, MGM Television, 2017-18.

Planet Earth II. Narrated by David Attenborough, Netflix app, BBC, 2016.