Like all other sources, online items follow the standard MLA citation.
Remove http:// or https:// from URLs. Www is included, though, if it appears in your browser’s navigation bar. The MLA Handbook recommends against using third-party URL shorteners, such as Bit.ly or TinyURL, to shorten the links you provide in your Works Cited list (110).
The access date (the day you visited a website and got information from it) is not a required element in your citation. However, the MLA Style Center suggests including it when no date of publication is available, or “if you suspect the work may be altered or removed” (“Access Date” par. 2). The access date is listed in Day Month Year format at the end of the citation. For example: Accessed 10 Sept. 2016. See the Works Cited List section of this guide for month abbreviations.
Try to find a publication date (frequently listed near the title of the article/website section or at the end of the text). If you’re citing an entire website and it gives a range of copyright or publication dates (example: Copyright © 2007 - 2018 Ask A Manager), the MLA Style Center recommends listing the entire date range (“Range of Dates” pars. 1-2). If you are citing an article, provide the publication date in Day Month Year format. If no publication date is available, simply leave out this element. Do not use “n.d.” (no date) as a placeholder.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
“When Should I Include an Access Date for an Online Work?” The MLA Style Center, 29 Dec. 2016, style.mla.org/access-dates/. Accessed 31 July 2018.
“When Should You Give a Range of Dates for a Web Site?” The MLA Style Center, 5 July 2018, style.mla.org/web-site-date-ranges/. Accessed 30 July 2018.
Bowers, Jeremy, et al., editors. The Best Commencement Speeches, Ever. National Public Radio, 2 July 2015, apps.npr.org/commencement/. Accessed 27 July 2018.
Occupational Outlook Handbook. United States, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/ooh/. Accessed 22 June 2016.
“Farmer Services.” Cargill, Inc., cargill.com/products/farmer/index.jsp. Accessed 7 Oct. 2016.
"Group of 7 Countries (G7): Statistical Profile." NationMaster, www.nationmaster.com/country-info/groups/Group-of-7-countries-(G7). Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
DeRuy, Emily. “The Complex Lives of Babies.” The Atlantic, 20 June 2016, www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/06/the-complex-lives-of-babies/487679/. Accessed 6 Oct. 2016.
Green, Alison. "How Can I Write a Resume When My Jobs Don’t Have Measurable Results?" Ask a Manager, 6 Nov. 2017, www.askamanager.org/2017/11/how-can-i-write-a-resume-when-my-jobs-dont-have-measurable-results.html. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
Advertisement for American Express. Bloomberg, 31 July 2018, www.bloomberg.com. Accessed 31 July 2018.
Advertisement for Toyota Prius. Earther, 2 Aug. 2018, earther.gizmodo.com/meet-the-communities-fighting-to-bring-back-their-stars-1827933239. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
NOTE: Wikipedia is great for background research, but it’s usually not a source you should use to support an academic speech or paper.
To see when a Wikipedia article was updated, click the “View History” tab at the top of the page.
“Television.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 10 June 2016, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television. Accessed 22 June 2016.
"Coeloplana astericola." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 3 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coeloplana_astericola. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
United States, Congress, Senate. International Disability and Victims of Landmines, Civil Strife and Warfare Assistance Act of 2002. Congress.gov, www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/senate-bill/1777/text/. 107th Congress, 2nd session, Senate Resolution 1777, passed 13 Sept. 2002.
United States, Congress, House. Interior, Environment, Financial Services and General Government, Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Transportation, Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 2019. Congress.gov, www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/6147. 115th Congress, 2nd session, House Resolution 6147, passed 1 Aug. 2018.
United States, Supreme Court. Sebelius v. Auburn Regional Medical Center. 22 Jan. 2013. United States Reports, vol. 568, pp. 145-164. Supreme Court of the United States, www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/boundvolumes/568BV.pdf.
United States, Supreme Court. Dred Scott v. Sanford. 1857. NOLO: Law for All, supreme.nolo.com/us/60/393/case.html. Accessed 3 Aug. 2018.
Aldegrever, Heinrich, printmaker. Intemperance. 1528. The New York Public Library Digital Collections, digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/d6a157b0-2efe-0133-e7f7-58d385a7b928.
van Gogh, Vincent. Starry Night. 1889. Wikimedia Commons, 22 Aug. 2008, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VanGogh-starry_night_ballance1.jpg.
Peralta, Eyder, reporter. "Zimbabwe Presidential Election Results Underway." All Things Considered, hosted by Ailsa Chang, National Public Radio, 2 Aug. 2018, www.npr.org/2018/08/02/635047726/zimbabwe-incumbent-emmerson-mnangagwa-leads-in-presidential-election.
Vogt, PJ, and Alex Goldman, hosts. "Raising the Bar." Reply All, episode 52, 20 Jan. 2016, gimletmedia.com/episode/52-raising-the-bar/.
Aranda, Michael, host. “Sprites, Jets, and Glowing Balls: The Science of Lightning.” YouTube, uploaded by SciShow, 23 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzNk4w2k2h0.
Sangra, Danny, director. "War." Vimeo, uploaded by Danny Sangra, 31 July 2018, vimeo.com/channels/staffpicks/282577747.
The example below uses an entire TV show. To cite a TV episode or a movie, use the appropriate physical video citation without the physical media format and with the app or website information added.
The Handmaid’s Tale. Created by Bruce Miller, MGM Television, 2017-18. Hulu, www.hulu.com/the-handmaids-tale.
Planet Earth II. Narrated by David Attenborough, BBC, 2016. Netflix, www.netflix.com/title/80195377.
MLA treats video subscription apps as versions, not containers.
The Handmaid’s Tale. Created by Bruce Miller, Hulu app, MGM Television, 2017-18.
Planet Earth II. Narrated by David Attenborough, Netflix app, BBC, 2016.