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APA Citation Guide

Butler's guide to APA citations

Encyclopedias - General Information

FORMATTING ENCYCLOPEDIAS ON YOUR REFERENCES PAGE

Include the edition number and publication year for the encyclopedia. If you are using a print encyclopedia and there are multiple volumes, include the specific volume number that was used. If you are using an online encyclopedia from a database, include the DOI (digital object identifier - a unique code for the encyclopedia article) at the end of the citation. If there is no DOI number assigned, give the URL of the database homepage.

Other formatting requirements:

  • Your entire paper, including your References page, should be double-spaced.
  • Alphabetize your References list by the first word of the citation (usually the author's last name).
  • Indent the second & following lines of the citation 0.5 inches (a hanging indent).
  • Multiple authors:
    • For 2-20 authors, your list of names will look like this: Wingert, P., Smith, J., & Brown, P.
    • More than 20 authors: provide the first six authors, an ellipsis, and the final author. For example Wingert, P., Smith, J., Brown, P., Harris, F., Johnson, A., Thompson, R.,...Lovett, M.
  • Only capitalize the first word of the document title. If there is a colon in the title, capitalize the first word after the colon.
  • Italicize the title of the encyclopedia.
  • Include a page range whenever available. For encyclopedias, put p. or pp. in front of the page range.
  • If you are citing an electronic encyclopedia article, do not include a period after the DOI number or URL.
  • Dates: Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available.

Print Encyclopedia

Specialty encyclopedias, or encyclopedias that cover a specific subject, frequently list the author of each article. Authors of articles in general encyclopedias, or encyclopedias that cover all subject areas (such as the Encyclopedia Britannica), are not always listed.

There are few situations in which you would list an entire encyclopedia in your references; you will need to list the individual article(s) that you consulted.

The page range will have p. (for one page) or pp. (for multiple pages) in front of it.

PRINT ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY WITH AUTHOR

Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of encyclopedia entry. In editor's First Initial(s) Last Name if available (Ed.), Title of Encyclopedia. (Vol. number, p(p). Pages). Publisher.

Sucher, J. (1996). Charge, electronic. In J. S. Rigden (Ed.), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics. (Vol. 1, pp. 191-193. Macmillan Reference USA.

PRINT ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY - NO AUTHOR

Title of encyclopedia entry. (Year). In editor's First Initial(s) Last Name if available (Ed.), Title of Encyclopedia. (Vol. number, p(p). Pages). Publisher.

Information theory. (2007). In The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (Vol. 21, pp. 631-637). Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.

Online Encyclopedia

Specialty encyclopedias, or encyclopedias that cover a specific subject, frequently list the author of each article. Authors of articles in general encyclopedias, or encyclopedias that cover all subject areas (such as the Encyclopedia Britannica), are not always listed.

There are few situations in which you would list an entire encyclopedia in your references; you will need to list the individual article(s) that you consulted.

ENCYCLOPEDIA FROM A DATABASE - HAS AUTHOR

Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year). Title of encyclopedia entry. In editor's First Initial(s) Last Name if available (Ed.), Title of Encyclopedia. Publisher if available. URL of entry

Padian, K. (1997). Origin of dinosaurs. In P. J. Currie K. Padian (Eds.)Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Elsevier Science & Technology. http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/estdino/ origin_of_dinosaurs/0

Ulak, J. T. (n.d.). Japanese art. In Britannica Academic.  http://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/399716

ENCYCLOPEDIA FROM A DATABASE - NO AUTHOR

Title of encyclopedia entry. (Year). In editor's First Initial(s) Last Name if available (Ed.), Title of Encyclopedia. Publisher if available. URL of entry

Art history. (2016). In Britannica Academic. http://academic.eb.com.butlerlib.butlercc.edu/levels/collegiate/article/9662

Donatello. (2001). In N. J. Wilson (Ed.), World Eras (Vol. 1, p. 91). http://go.galegroup.com.butlerlib.butlercc.edu/ps/start.do?prodId=GVRL&userGroupName=klnb_bucc

WIKIPEDIA

Wikipedia articles are almost always inappropriate as sources for a research paper; however, there might still be an instance when you need to cite one. The APA 7th ed. Manual states that you cite the archived version of the page which is available in "View history" and then the time and date of the version you used. If a wiki does not provide a permanent link use the URL for the entry and the retrieval date.

Title of Wikipedia entry. (archived date). In Wikipedia.  URL of Wikipedia entry

Television. (2020, March 11). In Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television